Osteoporosis, in other words, is a bone disease, and it is a disease in which bone tissue declines, resulting in a higher incidence of fractures. The most common and earliest vertebral fractures, of which only 25-30 percent. It manifests itself in the form of acute pain. Another particularly dangerous consequence of osteoporosis is the proximal femur fracture. As a result of it, 50% The injured lose their ability to move independently, and every fifth woman and every third man dies in the first year after the break
Osteoporosis – causes and risk factors
Natural processes to weaken bone tissue accelerates calcium deficiency in the body. If we crossed the bone, its interior would resemble a sponge. That’s why this part of it is called spongy substance. The bone is surrounded by it. An important component of both parts is a collagen mesh with crystals of calcium salts. When the collagen network becomes irregular, its calcium content is seldom reduced and decreased, it means bone loss and osteoporosis (osteoporosis).The bone becomes brittle, porous, light. The density of bone tissue and its resistance to external factors decrease.
Factors independent of man are:
● early termination of menstruation (before 40 years) – especially when it is the result of ovary removal
● family predisposition to fractures and osteoporosis
● some diseases, such as thyroid, liver, kidney, intestine or joints
● Factors influencing us:
● physical activity
● diet with low calcium intake
● used drugs (steroids, antiepileptics, sedatives, reducing coagulation)
● smoking high consumption of alcohol
prevention of osteoporosis
Physical activity and sufficient calcium intake naturally stimulate the building of bone marrow, thus forming the basis for preventing osteoporosis. Calcium intake and most commonly used exercise work to increase bone mass just before the onset of the disease. Once bone break-up has reached construction, and when the disease has begun to develop in full-fledged preventive measures in combination with drugs, it can only slow down further bone loss.
By exercising , bones are exposed to greater mechanical load and stronger forces than it is in sleep. Like any other body, bone is trying to compensate for the new conditions by compensating mechanisms. By increasing the bone mass, bone distributes the load to a larger amount of bone, thereby undermining the undesirable effect of the force. In addition to strengthening the bones, physical activity strengthens muscle tone and improves coordination and has a beneficial effect on reducing the chance of losing balance and falling. This is especially important for older people who, due to some other associated health conditions (weak vision, dizziness, dementia), tend to be more likely to be deprived of them. It is important to emphasize that physical activity must be continuous and adapted to the psychophysical capabilities of an individual.
Adequate calcium intake slows down bone remodeling processes and thus directly affects bone mass increase. It is recommended daily intake of 1000 to 1500 mg of calcium per day. Calcium preparation is less valuable than calcium obtained from food, but it is necessary for people who for some reason can not use calcium from food such as bowel, liver, gall bladder, kidney disease.
Milk and dairy products, green vegetables, seeds, nuts and, to a lesser extent, fish are rich in calcium in food. With sufficient calcium intake, 400-800 ij (international units) of vitamin D should be injected daily, equivalent to 2-3 drops of an oily vitamin. Vitamin D improves the absorption of calcium from food and promotes its incorporation into the bone mass network. Additional vitamin D intake is especially important in older people who are often not sufficiently exposed to sunlight, necessarily needed to create that vitamin in the skin.
Avoiding bad habits in terms of smoking cessation, avoidance of alcohol and coffee and body weight control is also a significant step in the prevention of osteoporosis, but also in diseases of the blood and nervous system and metabolic diseases that are also a significant cause of disability and mortality in the population.
Management of Osteoporosis
Once osteoporosis has developed, it is necessary to have body activity, calcium and vitamin D to remove other possible risk factors and begin with drug treatment. The goals of treating osteoporosis include: prevention of fractures, maintenance and increase of bone mass, removal of fracture symptoms and bone deformity, improvement and maintenance of functional abilities.
Remedies for treating osteoporosis aredivided into three categories:
● Drugs that stop bone breakdown
● drugs that stimulate bone building
● medicines that stimulate building and stop bone breakdown